Philosophy

GENERAL OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY 


Problems of Philosophy 

Problems of Philosophy Briefly Stated

Problem of Values
The Problems of Aesthetics and Moral Values 

Problem of Perception/Reality
Perception is Reality 

Problem of Mind/Body
Mind-Body Problem Views
Key Terms of Mind/Body Problem 

Problem of Unity and Diversity
The Problem of the One and the Many (John Frame)
The Ideal of Pure Oneness Without Diversity
Poythress on Unity and Diversity 
The One and the Many

CRITICAL THINKING/ARGUMENT THEORY

Proof 
What is a Proof?
The Priority of Persuasion
Persuasion and Proof

Evidence
What Does Evidence Mean? 
The Nature of Evidence

 

EPISTEMOLOGY

 

Objects of Knowledge

  1. Epistemological Dualism
  2. Epistemological Monism
  3. Epistemological Pluralism

Sources of Knowledge

  1. Rationalism
  2. Empiricism
    -Classical Empiricism
    -Radical Empiricism
    -Moderate Empiricism

Acquisition of Knowledge 

  1. Methodism
  2. Particularism


Justification of Knowledge

  1. Internalism
  2. Externalism

Strength of Justification of Knowledge 

  1. Infallibilism
  2. Fallibilism

Structure of Knowledge
The Structure of Justification 

  1. Foundationalism
    -Strong Foundationalism
    -Moderate Foundationalism
  2. Coherentism
    -Holistic Coherentism

Possibility of Knowledge

  1. Skepticism
    -Radical Skepticism
    -Mitigated Skepticism
    Refuting Mitigated and Unmitigated Skepticism 
  2. Dogmatism
    -Radical Dogmatism
    -Mitigated Dogmatism
  3. Relativism
    -Absolute Relativism
    -Mitgated Relativism

Perception

  1. Direct/Naive Realism
    -Simple Naive Realism
    -Sophisticated Naive Realism
    Simple and Sophisticated Naive Realism 
  2. Indirect Realism/Representationalism/Representative Realism
  3. Idealism
  4. Phenomenalism

Truth
Theories of Truth

  1. Correspondence Theory
  2. Coherence Theory
  3. Pragmatic Theory

 

Christian Epistemology
Van Til’s Epistemology
The Christian Theory of Knowledge- Part 1 
The Christian Theory of Knowledge- Part 2 
The Christian Theory of Knowledge- Part 3 

Nature of Truth
Consensus as a Criterion of Truth 

The Possibility of Knowledge
Self-Refutation of Radical Skepticism 

Refutation of Positivistic Skepticism
“Kantian” Subjectivism 

The Justification of Knowledge
Evidentialism
Evidentialism’s Fatal Flaw

Certainty
Epistemic Certainty/Logical Certainty
Psychological/Moral Certainty

METAPHYSICS

  1. Monism
    -Materialism
    -Idealism
  2. Dualism
  3. Pluralism

Nature of Abstract Entities

  1. Universals
    -Realism
    -Nominalism

Existence
Real is Whatever Exists 

Naturalism
What is Naturalism?
Tenets of Naturalism

 

MIND-BODY PROBLEM

Interaction of the Mind and Body

  1. Dualistic Interactionism/Dualism
  2. Parallelism/Pre-established Harmony
    -Occasionalism
  3. Epiphenomenalism

Nature/Existence of the Mind and Body

  1. Dualistic Interactionism/Dualism
  2. Panpsychism
  3. Idealism
  4. Materialism/Physicalism
    -Eliminative Materialism
    -Reductive Materialism (Identity Theory)
  5. Neutral Identity Theory/Dual Aspect Theory

 

ETHICS

Ethical Discourse is: Informative

Objectivist Theories 

  1. Naturalistic Objectivism
  2. Intuitionism

Subjectivist Theories 

  1. Private/Individual  Subjectivism
  2. Societal/Cultural Subjectivism

Ethical Discourse is: Directive

  1. Imperativism

Ethical Discourse is: Expressive

  1. Emotivism

Multifunctionalism

Ethical Relativism
Ethical Nihilism
Ethical Skepticism
Ethical Egoism
Ethical Hedonism
Nonhedonistic Ethical Egoism
Bentham’s Utilitarianism
Mill’s Utilitarianism
Kantian Ethics
Rule Utilitarianism

POLTICAL PHILOSOPHY


FREEDOM AND AUTHORITY 

  1. The Natural Law Theory
  2. The Social Contract
  3. Social Utilitarianism
  4. Theoretical Anarchism

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

The Scientific Method

Methodological Naturalism
Methodological Naturalism and Scientific Provincialism 

PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION

 

VALUES

Values
Objectivity of Value Judgments
Beauty as Subjective-Objective
The Objective Conditions of Beauty

HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

Ancient and Medieval Philosophy 

PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS

Priority
Ontological Priority and Epistemic Priority

Possibility 
Physical Possibility and Logical Possibility

Necessity
Logical Necessity and Transcendental Necessity


OTHER PHILOSOPHY STUFF

Heraclitus vs. Parmenides: The Problem of Change
Interpretations of the Allegory of the Cave
Aristotle’s God

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